Intestine Transplant Surgery
Intestine transplantation is a surgical replacement of diseased or damaged intestine that involves removing diseased small bowel and/or other organs, and replacing them with healthy organs. Intestine is one of the most important parts of the anatomy of human body which controls major digestive systems. Intestine is divided in to two parts namely- small intestine and the large intestine (the colon). The small intestine is a digestive tract (hollow shaped tube) where most food is broken down and absorbed into the body; whereas the large intestine (or colon) absorbs the water from digested food and forms solid stools. Both in combine play a key role to create energy in body but small intestine is the most important part of the digestive system. If either the large intestine or most of the small intestine is damaged or stops working then nutrients is directly injected or put into the blood stream (intravenous or IV) in liquid form. This liquid form of nutrients is called "total parenteral nutrition" or TPN. Intestinal failure or diseased person will always have need of TPN, because the digestive tract will not get better over time by the normal medication and survival without it would be difficult. Damaged or diseased intestine may be life threatening unless the surgery is not performed.
Intestine transplant is performed when the patient is dependent on intravenous TPN, has developed infections or complications that make it increasingly difficult to administer TPN, liver failure or has a nonfunctional bowel or without bowl. An intestinal transplant surgery is a last and most suitable option of treatment for patients with intestinal failure who develop life-threatening problems from total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Intestine transplant is of various forms such as-Isolated Intestinal Transplant (removing the diseased portion of the small intestine and replacing it with a healthy small intestine), Combined Liver Intestine Transplant (performing surgery in case of intestinal failure along with permanent liver failure) and Multivisceral Transplant (surgery for patients who have multiple organ failure, including stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine and kidney failure).
Before starting the surgery, some medical tests are performed such as Upper gastrointestinal and small bowel X-ray series, Barium enema, Endoscopy, Abdominal CT scan, Motility studies, EKG and echocardiography, Ultrasound of the circulatory system, Blood tests for liver function, electrolytes, kidney function and antibodies to certain viruses, for the better evaluation of disease. Surgery for intestine transplant is performed by using general anesthesia. By making an incision Surgeon removes the diseased parts of intestine and also removes other diseased organ(s) - most commonly the liver. Then donor intestine along with other donor organs is attached at that place. Proper medications are provided during the operation and after the surgery to minimizing the risk of rejecting the transplant and increasing the immune system because the body of the transplanted patients may treat the new intestine as a strange substance. Surgery of intestine transplant usually takes about 8-12 hours depending on quantum of disease. Patient might be able to begin eating after a few months of surgery and during these periods patients may need fluid given through the vein for several more months. For the faster recuperation, it is advised to patient to take the medication exactly as the doctor prescribes.
Organ Transplant Surgery
|• Heart Transplant Surgery||• Kidney Transplantation.|
|• Liver Transplant Surgery||• Pancreas Transplant|
|• Intestine Transplant|